A systematic literature review of efficacy, effectiveness and safety of biologic therapies for treatment of familial Mediterranean fever.

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To identify and summarize the existing evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of biologic therapies used, either as indicated or off-label, in the treatment of FMF.A systematic literature review was conducted using Embase®, MEDLINE®, MEDLINE®-In Process, and Cochrane databases to identify randomized/non-randomized controlled trials (RCTs/non-RCTs) and real-world observational studies of FMF published as full-text articles (2000-September 2017) or conference abstracts (2014-September 2017). Studies with data for ≥1 biologic were included. Studies with <5 patients were excluded.Of the 3342 retrieved records, 67 publications, yielding 38 unique studies, were included. All studies were published after the year 2010, and the majority (21) were full-text articles. Most studies (33/38) were prospective/retrospective observational; three were double-blind, placebo-controlled RCTs (one each of anakinra, canakinumab and rilonacept); and two were non-RCTs (both canakinumab). Anakinra (26), canakinumab (21) and etanercept (6) were the most frequently used biologics across studies, whereas use of adalimumab, tocilizumab, rilonacept and infliximab was limited (1-2 studies). The available evidence suggested benefits of anakinra and canakinumab in FMF.Anti-IL-1 therapies (i.e. anakinra and canakinumab) appear to be effective and safe options in the treatment of overall FMF, including patients with colchicine resistance and FMF-related amyloidosis. There is a need for properly designed prospective or controlled studies to conclude the superiority of one anti-IL-1 therapy over another. Evidence on the use of TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors is limited, and further research is suggested.

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