A novel method to interpret early phase trials shows how the narrowing of the coronary sinus concordantly improves symptoms, functional status and quality of life in refractory angina.

Reduction of the coronary sinus was shown to improve angina in patients unsuitable for revascularisation. We assessed whether a percutaneous device that reduces the diameter of the coronary sinus improved outcomes across multiple endpoints in a phase II trial.We conducted a novel analysis performed as a post hoc efficacy analysis of the COSIRA (Coronary Sinus Reducer for Treatment of Refractory Angina) trial, which enrolled patients with Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class 3-4 refractory angina. We used four domains: symptoms (CCS Angina Scale), functionality (total exercise duration), ischaemia (imaging) and health-related quality of life. For all domains, we specified a meaningful threshold for change. The primary endpoint was defined as a probability of ≥80% that the reducer exceeded the meaningful threshold on two or more domains (group-level analysis) or that the average efficacy score in the reducer group exceeded the sham control group by at least two points (patient-level analysis).We randomised 104 participants to either a device that narrows to coronary sinus (n=52) or a sham implantation (n=52). The reducer group met the prespecified criteria for concordance at the group level and demonstrated improvement in symptoms (0.59 CCS grade, 95% credible interval (CrI)=0.22 to 0.95), total exercise duration (+27.9%, 95% CrI=2.8% to 59.8%) and quality of life (stability +11.2 points, 95% CrI=3.3 to 19.1; perception +11.0, 95% CrI=3.3 to 18.7).The reducer concordantly improved symptoms, functionality and quality of life compared with a sham intervention in patients with angina unsuitable for coronary revascularisation. Concordant analysis such as this one can help interpret early phase trials and guide the decision to pursue a clinical programme into a larger confirmatory trial.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01205893.

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