Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) frequently complicates cancer treatment causing chemotherapy delays, dose reductions, and discontinuation. There is no FDA-approved agent available to manage CIT. This study retrospectively evaluated patients with CIT treated on institutional romiplostim treatment pathways at 4 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was achievement of a romiplostim response [median on-romiplostim platelet count (Plt) ≥75x109/L and ≥30x109/L above baseline]. Secondary outcomes included time to Plt≥100x109/L and rates of the following: Plt<100x109/L, Plt<75x109/L, Plt<50x109/L, thrombocytosis, chemotherapy dose reduction/treatment delay, platelet transfusion, bleeding, and thromboembolism. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of romiplostim non-response and compare weekly dosing with intracycle/intermittent dosing. 173 patients (153 solid tumor, 20 lymphoma or myeloma) were treated, with 170 (98%) receiving a median of 4 (range, 1-36) additional chemotherapy cycles on romiplostim. Romiplostim was effective in solid tumor patients: 71% of patients achieved a romiplostim response, 79% avoided chemotherapy dose reductions/treatment delays and 89% avoided platelet transfusions. Median per-patient Plt on romiplostim was significantly higher than baseline (116x109/L vs. 60x109/L, P<0.001). Bone marrow tumor invasion, prior pelvic irradiation, and prior temozolomide predicted romiplostim non-response. Bleeding rates were lower than historical CIT cohorts and thrombosis rates were not elevated. Weekly dosing was superior to intracycle dosing with higher response rates and less chemotherapy dose reductions/treatment delays (IRR 3.00, 95% CI 1.30-6.91, P=0.010) or bleeding (IRR 4.84, 95% CI 1.18-19.89, P=0.029). Blunted response (10% response rate) was seen in non-myeloid hematologic malignancy patients with bone marrow involvement. In conclusion, romiplostim was safe and effective for CIT in most solid tumor patients.