A Case Series: Three-dimensional Computed Tomographic Study of the Superior Orbital Vessels: Superior Orbital Arcades and Their Relationships With the Supratrochlear Artery and Supraorbital Artery.

Vascular complication from periorbital intravascular filler injection are major safety concerns.To thoroughly describe the superior orbital vessels near the orbital rim and propose considerations for upper eyelids and forehead injections.Fifty-one cadaver heads were infused with lead oxide contrast media through the external carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and facial and superficial temporal arteries. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained after contrast agent injection, and 3D CT scans were reconstructed using a validated algorithm.Eighty-six qualified hemifaces clearly revealed the origin, depth and anastomoses of the superior orbital vessels, which consistently deployed two distinctive layers: deep and superficial. Of all hemifaces, 59.3% had deep superior orbital vessels near the orbital rim, including 44.2% with deep superior orbital arcades and 15.1% with deep superior orbital arteries, which originated from the ophthalmic artery. Additionally, 97.7% of the hemifaces had superficial superior orbital arcades, for which four origins were identified: ophthalmic artery, superior medial palpebral artery, angular artery, and anastomosis between the angular and ophthalmic arteries.The arterial depth estimated from 3D CT needs to be confirmed by standard cadaver dissection.This study elucidated novel arterial systems and proposed considerations for upper eyelids and forehead injections.

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