Decreased plasma kallikrein activity is associated with reduced kidney function in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

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Plasma kallikrein is the central mediator of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system, which is involved both in vascular control and thrombin formation cascades. The plasma kallikrein-kinin system has also been considered protective in pathological conditions, but the impact of plasma kallikreins on diabetic nephropathy remains unknown. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association of plasma kallikrein with diabetic nephropathy.We measured plasma kallikrein activity in 295 individuals with type 1 diabetes at various stages of diabetic nephropathy, and we tested the genetic association between the plasma kallikrein-kinin system and kidney function in 4400 individuals with type 1 diabetes.Plasma kallikrein activity was associated with diabetes duration (p 

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