Major depressive disorder and cardiometabolic diseases: a bidirectional Mendelian randomisation study.

Observational studies have shown a bidirectional association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiometabolic diseases. We conducted a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to assess the causal associations of MDD with type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure and vice versa.We extracted summary-level data for MDD, type 2 diabetes, CAD and heart failure from corresponding published large genome-wide association studies of individuals mainly of European-descent. In total, 96 SNPs for MDD, 202 SNPs for type 2 diabetes, 44 SNPs for CAD and 12 SNPs for heart failure were proposed as instrumental variables at the genome-wide significance level (p 

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