Trends in Treatment for Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Before and After Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT).

The TOPCAT trial investigated spironolactone vs placebo in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the primary endpoint was not statistically significant, treatment with spironolactone did reduce heart failure hospitalizations compared with placebo. TOPCAT's impact on prescribing patterns in the United States is not well-characterized. We performed a retrospective analysis of discharge prescribing data in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry among patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% discharged between January 2009 and December 2016 to assess prescribing trends upon dissemination of TOPCAT results. Of 142,201 patients included in the study, 18,581 (13.1%) were prescribed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) at discharge. Compared with those not prescribed MRAs, patients discharged on MRAs were generally younger (75 vs 78 years), and report white race (76.7% vs 72.0%), more likely to have had prior heart failure hospitalizations (75.5% vs 65.7%), lower brain natriuretic peptide levels (492 vs 545 pg/mL), but similar serum creatinine levels (1.2 vs 1.2 mg/dL) upon admission. MRA prescribing modestly increased over time (p <0.0001), without significant change in the overall trend of prescribing rate for MRAs after TOPCAT results were presented (p =0.17). In conclusion, our findings suggest that for patients with HFpEF, the use of MRAs at hospital discharge is low, with only modest increases over time and no discernible change in the rate of MRA use after the TOPCAT results were released. There remains an important need for more clinical trials to better establish the efficacy and safety of MRAs for the treatment of HFpEF.

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