Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events, Severe Hypoglycemia, and All-Cause Mortality for Widely Used Antihyperglycemic Dual and Triple Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Management: A Cohort Study of All Danish Users.

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The vast number of antihyperglycemic medications and growing amount of evidence make clinical decision making difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of antihyperglycemic dual and triple therapies for type 2 diabetes management with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events, severe hypoglycemia, and all-cause mortality in a real-life clinical setting.Cox regression models were constructed to analyze 20 years of data from the Danish National Patient Registry with respect to effect of the antihyperglycemic therapies on the three end points.A total of 66,807 people with type 2 diabetes were treated with metformin (MET) including a combination of second- and third-line therapies. People on MET plus sulfonylurea (SU) had the highest risk of all end points, except for severe hypoglycemia, for which people on MET plus basal insulin (BASAL) had a higher risk. The lowest risk of major adverse cardiovascular events was seen for people on a regimen including a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. People treated with MET, GLP-1, and BASAL had a lower risk of all three end points than people treated with MET and BASAL, especially for severe hypoglycemia. The lowest risk of all three end points was, in general, seen for people treated with MET, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and GLP-1.Findings from this study do not support SU as the second-line treatment choice for patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the results indicate that adding a GLP-1 for people treated with MET and BASAL could be considered, especially if those people suffer from severe hypoglycemia.

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