This study evaluated the continuous use of trastuzumab beyond progression (TBP) in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer.Patients with HER2-positive advanced G/GEJ cancer refractory to first-line chemotherapy with trastuzumab in combination with fluoropyrimidine and platinum were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to the paclitaxel (80 mg/m2, days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks) or paclitaxel with trastuzumab (PT; initially 8 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg, every 3 weeks) arms. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety. Biomarkers such as HER2 expression status in tumor tissue after first-line treatment, HER2 amplification evaluated in serum cell-free DNA, and soluble HER2 levels were analyzed.Overall, 91 patients were allocated to the paclitaxel (n = 46) and PT (n = 45) arms. The median PFS in the paclitaxel and PT arms was 3.2 and 3.7 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 80% CI, 0.67 to 1.22; P = .33), and the median OS in both arms was 10 months (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.75 to 2.0; P = .20). The overall response rates in the paclitaxel and PT arms were 32% and 33%, respectively (P = 1.00), and safety was comparable between the 2 arms. On exploratory analyses, HER2 positivity of tumor tissues was lost after first-line chemotherapy in 11 (69%) of 16 patients whose tumor tissues were available, and circulating HER2 DNA amplification was detected in 41 (60%) of 68 patients. However, no biomarkers associated with efficacy of TBP were found.The TBP strategy failed to improve PFS in patients with HER2-positive advanced G/GEJ cancer, and no beneficial biomarkers were found.