Gut microbiome transfer - finding the perfect fit.

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Gut microbiome transfer (GMT; also referred to as faecal microbiota transplantation or FMT) has been propelled from fringe therapy to mainstream science as a highly effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. As a result, there has been great interest in the potential efficacy and safety of GMT in treating other medical conditions, for example, inflammatory bowel disease, and more recently as a novel therapy for obesity and metabolic diseases. For these chronic conditions, the results from clinical trials have been mixed. Further, specifically in obesity and metabolic diseases, there are limited available data, with only a few published studies with a small number of participants and short duration of follow-up. Therefore, this review aims to explore the human, microbial, and formulation factors that may affect the success of GMT. This includes various aspects in the preparation and administration of GMT, such as stool processing, modes of delivery, pre-treatment with antibiotics and/or bowel lavage, frequency of GMT, and possible use of precision bacteriotherapy. In addition, we examine the potential use of GMT in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic diseases based on current available literature, highlighting some recent advances in GMT research in this area, as well as potential adverse effects after GMT therapy.

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