Radiotheranostics, injectable radiopharmaceuticals with antitumour effects, have seen rapid development over the past decade. Although some formulations are already approved for human use, more radiopharmaceuticals will enter clinical practice in the next 5 years, potentially introducing new therapeutic choices for patients. Despite these advances, several challenges remain, including logistics, supply chain, regulatory issues, and education and training. By highlighting active developments in the field, this Review aims to alert practitioners to the value of radiotheranostics and to outline a roadmap for future development. Multidisciplinary approaches in clinical trial design and therapeutic administration will become essential to the continued progress of this evolving therapeutic approach.