AREN0321 evaluated the activity of vincristine and irinotecan (VI) in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse anaplastic Wilms tumor (DAWT) and whether a regimen containing carboplatin (regimen UH1) in addition to regimen I agents used in the National Wilms Tumor Study 5 (NWTS-5; vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide plus radiotherapy) would improve patient outcomes.Patients with stage II to IV DAWT without measurable disease received regimen UH1. Patients with stage IV measurable disease were eligible to receive VI (vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2 per day intravenously on days 1 and 8; irinotecan, 20 mg/m2 per day intravenously on days 1-5 and 8-12 of a 21-day cycle) in an upfront window; those with complete (CR) or partial response (PR) had VI incorporated into regimen UH1 (regimen UH2). The study was designed to detect improvement in outcomes of patients with stage II to IV DAWT compared with historical controls treated with regimen I.Sixty-six eligible patients were enrolled. Of 14 patients with stage IV measurable disease who received VI, 11 (79%) achieved CR (n = 1) or PR (n = 10) after 2 cycles. Doses of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide were reduced midstudy because of nonhematologic toxicity. Four patients (6%) died as a result of toxicity. Four-year event-free survival, relapse-free survival, and overall survival rates were 67.7% (95% CI, 55.9% to 79.4%), 72.9% (95% CI, 61.5% to 84.4%), and 73.7% (95% CI, 62.7% to 84.8%), respectively, compared with 57.5% (95% CI, 47.6% to 67.4%; P = .26), 57.5% (95% CI, 47.6% to 67.4%; P = .048), and 59.2% (95% CI, 49.4% to 69.0%; P = .08), respectively, in NWTS-5.VI produced a high response rate in patients with metastatic DAWT. AREN0321 treatment seemed to improve outcomes for patients with stage II to IV DAWT compared with NWTS-5, but with increased toxicity. The UH2 regimen warrants further investigation with modifications to reduce toxicity.