Hispanics/Latinos are the largest ethnic/racial group in the U.S., have the highest prevalence of diabetes, and are at increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, little is known about the relationship between diabetes and cognitive decline and disorders among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. The purpose of this study is to clarify these relationships in diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.The Study of Latinos-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging (SOL-INCA) is an ancillary study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). HCHS/SOL is a multisite (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; and San Diego, CA), probability sampled (i.e., representative of targeted populations), and prospective cohort study. Between 2016 and 2018, SOL-INCA enrolled diverse Hispanics/Latinos ages 50 years (n = 6,377). Global cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment were the primary outcomes.Prevalent diabetes at visit 1, but not incident diabetes at visit 2, was associated with significantly steeper global cognitive decline (GC = -0.16 [95% CI -0.25; -0.07]; P < 0.001), domain-specific cognitive decline, and higher odds of MCI (odds ratio 1.74; [95% CI 1.34; 2.26]; P < 0.001) compared with no diabetes in age- and sex-adjusted models.Diabetes was associated with cognitive decline and increased MCI prevalence among diverse Hispanics/Latinos, primarily among those with prevalent diabetes at visit 1. Our findings suggest that significant cognitive decline and MCI may be considered additional disease complications of diabetes among diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.