Few effective treatments are available for male pattern hair loss (MPHL) and especially for female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Recently, cell-based therapies using autologous or allogeneic cells have been used clinically.We examined the safety and efficacy of autologous cell-based therapy using dermal sheath cup (DSC) cells to treat MPHL and FPHL.DSCs dissected from occipital hair follicles were cultured to manufacture DSC cells. Subjects with MPHL or FPHL received single injections of 7.5x106, 1.5x106 or 3.0x105 DSC cells or a placebo in 4 randomized separate regions on their scalp, and hair densities and diameters were measured until 12 months later.Fifty males and 15 females aged 33 to 64 were injected with DSC cells. Total hair density and cumulative hair diameter at the 3.0x105DSC cells injection site was significantly increased compared with the placebo after 6 and 9 months. Men and women showed similar improvements and there were no serious adverse events.No lower cell numbers were tested, and the positive effect was temporary until 9 months.The results suggest that cell therapy with autologous DSC cells may be useful as a new therapeutic method for treating MPHL and FPHL.