Low-grade endotoxaemia enhances artery thrombus growth via Toll-like receptor 4: implication for myocardial infarction.

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Low-grade endotoxaemia is detectable in human circulation but its role in thrombosis is still unclear.We measured serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a marker of platelet activation, and zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, in peripheral circulation, coronary thrombi, and intracoronary blood of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n = 50) and stable angina (SA) (n = 50), respectively, and in controls (n = 50). Experimental study was carried out in mice to assess if Escherichia coli-LPS (E. coli-LPS) possess thrombotic property. Coronary thrombi from STEMI showed higher concentrations of LPS, sP-selectin vs. intracoronary blood of SA and peripheral blood of controls (P 

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